Categories
plastic mold company

Mold heating

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One of the primary tasks of any liquid circulating via the mold is to manage the speed of heat exchange, or perhaps the cooling speed of the polyester resin. Increased temperatures are usually needed when slow cooling is preferred for component property demands and for excessive molding temperature plastic material. Consequently, cold runner molding genuinely is most likely the manipulated heat or cool of the polyester resin as preferred.

 

There tend to be three usual heating methods employed for raising the temperature of the mold steel . They are generally high temperature water, steam, and hot oiI. High temperature water is most likely the most popular for molds with cold runner . Heating system is generally needed once the medium employed inside the mold steel water ways is needed over room temperature.
This sketching symbolizes the cross-sectional perspective of a mold base together with the molded component and its runner structure. Water channels are machined within the mold cavity and mold core steels. This lets warm water to be distributed via the mold from a heating device along side the press. The warm water is actually heated up by power resistance heating units and is actually temperature manipulated.
F3-03
The sketching symbolizes the cross-sectional perspective of a mold base together with the molded component and its runner structure. Steam ways are machined in the mold cavity and mold core steels. This lets steam to be distributed within the mold, from another source. Steam will be not generally employed for cold runner molds since it will be hard to regulate its temperature, and also the environment’s protection should be thought about.
F3-04
The sketching symbolizes the cross-sectional perspective of a mold base together with the molded component and its runner structure. Hot oil channels are machined within the mold cavity and mold core steels. This lets hot oil to  be distributed within the mold from another source. The oil will be generally heated by power resistance heating units and will be temperature manipulated.
F3-05
The heating system effectiveness of a mold depends on the heating medium employed, temperature conditions, pressure, and movement speed of the medium. The high temperature conductivity of the mold steel employed ought to also be thought of. A lot of mold manufacturers decide heating system demands by old knowledge. Mold heating system demands might be worked out.
The formula demonstrated is designed for computing the heat material of plastic material going into the mold:
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The formula demonstrated is designed for computing of transferring or switching heat from 2 bodies in contact.
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This formula will be employed to compute convection, or perhaps the capability of a medium to transport heat from one location to another.
F3-09
It is actually chosen to employ a turbulent coolant movement via the water ways to obtain improved heat exchange. The Reynold’s Number is really a way of measuring turbulent movement. Demonstrated below is the Reynold’s Number formula.
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Heating system parts are usually diversified during design . Heating system parts can:

  • Work as the main heat supply.
  • Aid heating or add to heat via a different source.
  • React to temperature detectors and measurement.
  • React to temperature controls.
  • Avoid heat decrease from taking location.
Mode A band heater demonstrated below is usually employed for effective heating of shot cylinders and nozzles. There are several kinds of band heating units. Kind B band heaters demonstrated below might be employed close to the top of the sprue bushing to minimize troubles due to machine nozzle freeze-off. Each style below come with an operating temperature up to 910 degrees Fahrenheit max.
Cartridge heating units are usually employed to increase the temperature of a part or specified region, within either the core or cavity side of the mold base. They tend to be primarily employed for thermoplastic . The heating units are usually connected to a heat manipulation module and generally a thermocouple. A close, tight fit, will be very crucial for effectiveness and lifetime.
F3-13
Even mold temperature is definitely vital to help good molding. Some of the troubles, resulting from poor or irregular mold temperature, will be:

  1. long cycle time
  2. Shrinking
  3. Sink spots
  4. Stress issues
  5. Warpage
  6. Visual appeal

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Categories
Cooling plastic mold company

Cooling

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Bubbler tubes are generally employed to allow them to cool tiny inserted cores, or spot cooling with hard to arrive at regions. Inlet(waterin) and outlet(waterout) holes are generally machined within the support plate. The inlet tapped hole is to obtain a threaded bubbler tube. cool medium moves inside, go up the bubbler tube, across and cools along the way downward, then get out of the hole supplied
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Brass diverting plugs permit the mold developer to guide or change the coolant movement via the water ways as preferred. The plugs are usually pushed within the water ways to the preferred position, and brass rods are usually machined to work as spacers or stops among the plugs. Pressure plugs shut each side.
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The performance of the baffles demonstrated below is to separate the coolant channel to 2 semi-circular channels. When the coolant goes inside, the baffle diverts the movement up and across the baffle, next downwards and out. Spin baffles make a turbulent movement within the channel delivering stability and effective cooling.
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Thermal pin heat up conductors are usually employed inside cores, core slides besides other regions of a mold, where demand cooling or manipulated temperatures. They exchange heat quickly to the cool medium as demonstrated below, as an alternative to moving coolant towards a heated region. Commonly employed in location of bubblers, baffles, together with water fountains.
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Copper alloy pins likewise exchange heat to the cool medium, however do not exchange heat as fast as thermal pins. Aside from copper, beryllium- copper might be employed. The complete core insert could be made from a copper alloy. Heat is shifted from the molding region to the cool medium channel. It is employed where bubblers, baffles, plus water fountains would be a structure trouble.
F2-21
The illustration below symbolizes a water manifold to be employed in order to handle coolant movement, temperature conditions, and stress within the mold core retainer plate. The contacts to the cool medium  might be on the opposite or the identical part of a mold base. Water manifolds may also link the mold cavity retainer plate.
F2-22
Water fittings give a way for the mold maker to “swift” link the coolant to the mold cavity or mold core steels. The  adaptable coolant hose pipe demonstrated below is really a fast and adaptable way to make contacts for water cooling. A solid system utilizing water manifolds may also be used in the event that preferred.
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The chart identifies prevalent mold cooling challenges and usual solutions:
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Categories
Cooling plastic mold company

Cooling

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Once the hot polyester resin goes into the mold it ought to be cooled quickly. Cooling permits the molded component which will keep its preferred pattern when it’s demolded out of the mold. When cooling isn’t offered ,the hot polyester resin may normally heat up the mold steel to a level ,so component cooling to a solid  form may not be attained. Mold temperature is quite crucial, since it controls a great part of the general cooling cycle. You will find methods that mold cooling occurs.

The sketching demonstrated below symbolizes the cross-section of a mold base together with the molded component and its runner structure. The hot polyester resin may heat up the adjacent mold steels. one part of this heat may be carried out directly into the machine platens and some other heat may radiate directly into the air all around the mold base.
F2-03
This sketching symbolizes the cross-section of a mold base together with the molded component and its runner structure. Water ways are machined into the mold cavity and core plates. This lets moving water to get rid of heat within the molded component by convection. water ways temperature, movement, and pressure might be controlled.
F2-04
This sketching symbolizes the cross-section of a mold base together with the molded component and its runner structure. water ways are machined within the cavity and core plates. This lets a moving water/ethylene glycol mixture to get rid of heat within the molded component by convection. This mix is employed for excessive cooling demands and needs a chilling appliance.
F2-05

 

Heat moves from a increased temperature body to a reduced temperature body. The temperature variation and the level of heat decides the movement. The larger the variance among the 2 bodies in temperature the higher the movement speed among them. Such a heat exchange transferring occurs from hot plastic resin contact to steel and after that to water water ways. The cooling effectiveness of a mold depends on the species of coolant employed, coolant pressure, movement speed and coolant conditions. The mold materials employed also have diverse heat conductivity.

A lot of mold manufacturers decide cooling demands by old knowledge. Some mold manufacturers decide cooling demands by employing a zone cooling strategy. A certain coolant hole dimension may zone cool a given diameter along the coolant hole. Mold cooling demands might be determined and you will find software applications programs to make ease of the time and job required using calculations. The next content may provide you with a better idea of what is required for calculations:

  • Equation A is made for figuring out the heat content of plastic material materials going into the mold.
  • Equation B is employed to determine convection, or the capability of a medium which will transport heat from one location to another.
  • Equation C is made for the computation of transferring or switching heat from 2 bodies in contact.
  • Equation D is most likely the Reynolds number formula. It is chosen to possess a turbulent coolant movement via the cooling water ways to allow them to gain improved heat exchange. The Reynolds number is really a way of measuring turbulent flow.

F2-07

Designing the correct cooling structure for a given mold involves a lot of parameters. The mold developer ought to take into account:

  • Variety of plastic resin and its soften conditions.
  • Variety of coolant which will use.
  • Position of water ways.
  • Dimension, quantity, and amount of water ways.
  • Position of water ways within the mold
  • Efficiency of heat exchanger to be chosen.
  • Client cooling requirements and demands.

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Polyester resin flows improved when heated up, but is cooled off as it moves past the water ways all around the cavity and core. Consequently, a perfect molding conditions ought to be held by manipulating the coolant conditions, pressure and movement speed. In case practical, the arriving coolant should cross the hottest molding areas initially, and after that cross the cooler mold areas.The illustration reveals a cooling layout for a thin, not deep, sole cavity mold. Equivalent coolant water ways are machined within the mold steel, and a tapered water line thread is utilized on each end, for convenient remove water line fittings. Heat is eliminated as the coolant moves across the channel.

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This illustration symbolizes a cooling layout for a not deep, sole cavity mold. water ways are machined as demonstrated below. Each hole entrance is machined and tapped for a tapered water line thread and a tapered water line plug should be considered which will stop the movement and direct or deliver the coolant in directions required which will move close to the component cavity in order that most walls of the cavity will be cooled off.

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This illustration symbolizes a cooling layout on a deep thin wall box. The core steel which will make the wall thickness isn’t demonstrated for readability. The red color below symbolizes the component cavity region. A vertical hole is machined and plugged as demonstrated in order to permit the water to help movement from position 1 to position 2.
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The illustration below symbolizes a cross-section for a core cooling layout. Holes are typically machined and plugged as demonstrated. The patterns could be radial or move along with the core length based on the layout.
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These illustrations display coolant moving into, splitting close to the circle cavity insert, and after that out. This layout might be linked to different inserts. 2 O-ring slots are made which will prevent leaking. A center slots is turned in order to offer 360 degrees of cooling close to the circle insert and cavity working surface.

F2-13

Cooling parts will be employed in order to handle coolant movement . All the different cooling parts is discussed on the next pages.
Pressure plugs tend to be made in order to stop or handle coolant movement within water ways. The tapered thread design comes with a seal utilizing a planned variation of taper among the water plug and the tapped opening. A hex socket head is employed for tightening. The headless model plug utilizes an extensible O-ring manipulated by rotating a hex wrench inside the plug .
F2-15
Cascade water junctions are typically employed to allow them to cool inserted cores to arrive at regions of molds. Coolant goes into the base connection and moves up the center water line, splatters over similar to a water fountain, cooling 360 degrees when it goes down and leave from the appropriate connector.

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Categories
plastic mold company

Mold Heating and Cooling

 

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The course may discuss the fundamentals of mold heating and cooling about cold runner system. You may discover choice, utility, components and prevalent troubles connected with heating and cooling. The next topics are introduced in a practical way.

F0-00

 

The handling of mold temperature by ways to heat and cool the mold cavity is essential to the shot process. For polyester resin to be appropriately produced to a component, the mold needs to get cooled or heated.

 

This illustration symbolizes a cooling routine for a thin, not deep, individual cavity mold. Equivalent coolant water ways are machined within the mold , and tapered water pipe thread is utilized on both sides for convenient remove conduit fittings. Heat is eliminated because coolant moves via the channel.
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This sketching symbolizes the cross-section of a mold base together with a component and its particular runner structure. Water ways have been machined within the cavity and core steels which will make it possible for hot water to be distributed from an additional temperature handle device. The control device is generally located alongside the machine and piped to the mold.
F1-03
The illustration below symbolizes setting up a mold exterior temperature regulation structure on top of a molding machine. The goal of the micro-processor regulator and its own mold detectors is to handle the mold exterior temperature by means of controlling the movement of water within the additional temperature regulate product. The cooling and heating cycle (time) is manipulated robotically.
F1-04

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Categories
plastic mold company

vent

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As plastic material is injected to a cavity, it ought to expel the air which can be previously there. Except the air is eliminated rapidly many things might appear. Air may get caught and after that compacted raising its temperature sufficient to allow them to result in burn markings or possibly a gap. Absence of correct venting can result in a rise within shot pressure, short shots, splay scars, negative weld marks, and a excessive level of internal stresses.

 

Most plastic molds has vent slot at some way. Air within molds can be released along the P/L, ejection pins, slides, and mold inserts. Generally it isn’t really sufficient due to the amount of air that ought to expelled rapidly. Which means mold designer ought to assume caught air areas and plan extra venting areas.

This image symbolizes polyester resin completing a cavity with no air vents. The air invited from heating the polyester resin are caught and can’t be expelled. This squeezes and increases the temperature of the air, resulting in the plastic material which will burn up or char, and perhaps resulting in an unsufficient fill shot.

D4-03

There are several kinds of air vents and vent areas. A lot of  air vents on parting line works extremely well as needed. Ventilation could be produced on via ejector pins. Ventilation could possibly be intended on inserts, cores, leader pins installed on mold base.

 

The parting line vent demonstrated below symbolizes the most popular type of ventilation employed. A lot of more might be employed where needed. The vent is generally manufactured by milling a not deep, thin land, then a deeper slot. Component dimension, pattern, and kind of plastic material decide the venting land dimension. The vent relief slots assists to allow them to maintain the land open.
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These sketches symbolize ventilation close to and below an ejector pin. Flats are machined in order to maintain the pin concentrated and permit ventilation. Air are able to vent via the flats, directly into the relief region, and after that released from mold base. Degree of the flats ought to fit the plastic resin viscosity to ensure that merely the air may release.

D4-07

Parting line air vents manufactured very broad are susceptible to coining. Coining is alloy compression, triggered from shutting the mold under excessive clamping force, therefore sealing a vent. When slots are very narrow they might plug quickly, or various depths between numerous air vents may result in fill troubles. Never vent where component performance, looks, or flash could be a trouble.

 

The sketching below symbolizes a negative position for a vent because the caught air can be found at the opposite cavity end . The final location to fill, opposite the entrance is most likely the best area for a vent.
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Vent Placement Solutions

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Categories
plastic mold company

gate

 

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Gate

A gate stands out as the link between the runner  and the formed component. It ought to allow sufficient melt plastic movement which can occupy the mold cavity, additionally extra resin to compensate component shrinking and solidfying.
The gate is an extremely important section of the runner system. The gate model, position, and dimension carries a remarkable impact on the shaping course. It influences body qualities, presence, and dimensions of the component.

D1-06

Side gate(edge gate)

The side gate demonstrated here is most likely the most popular form of gate. The arrow illustrates the plastic material movement out of the runner, via the gate, and directly into the cavity. One half on the rounded runner and  the whole gate is cut in the cavity part demonstrated below.

D3-02

Enlargement “A” illustrates a really tiny mark remaining once the gate has been eliminated. If appearance and layout performance allow, this gate might be ripped away manually. Otherwise, the component gate exterior can be enhanced manually nipping, or putting the component and runner structure in a fit fixture.

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Sprue Gate

Component Arrangement
The arrows on the image stand for the plastic material movement coming from a nozzle via the sprue gate and thereafter radially to occupy the plate cavity. This form of gate is employed at a big, sole cavity mold. Gating in the center grants an effortless flow, lowest pressure decline, and removes stuck air and weld marks. Shortcomings are degating .
Resin Filler
Nearly every kind of plastic material works extremely well with this particular kind of gate because the entrance of the sprue gate to the mold cavity is big. There should not be any trouble with viscosity or fulfilled resins.

D3-03

Figure below demonstrated here represents a sizable mark remaining from cutting  the sprue gate. Consequently, it is essential to gate in a non-cosmetic place or exterior which don’t modify the component performance. Additional aesthetic issues are potential flow lines exuding away from sprue, or sink spots reverse the sprue.

D3-04

Component Arrangement
The arrows from the sketching here symbolize the plastic movement coming from a feed runner into the periphery of the lengthy, hollow pipe. Subsequently it moves radially over the ring gate and evenly along the whole pipe. The material moves effortlessly on lengthy, hollow, rounded components. Ring gates avoid weld lines, stuck air, or tension concentration surrounding the gate.
Plastic resin Filler
Nearly every resin/filler works extremely well with this particular kind of gate due to the big radial movement section of the gate. Despite the fact that gate thickness might be a essential element, there shouldn’t be any trouble with viscosity or stuffed resins in the most common materials.

D3-05

The subsequent sketching shows the hollow plastic pipe having the circle gate/runner system eliminated. Because a mark or spot resides it is desired to gate into a non-cosmetic area. In the event the pipe inside diameter is big sufficient ,a disk gate (opposite of a circle gate) can be employed. This will retain the gate mark away from the outside component surface.

D3-06

point gate

The arrows on the sketching demonstrated below symbolize the plastic material movement within the sprue, runner system, point gate, and directly into the mug pattern cavities. A Three plate mold structure instantly degates the component and sprue. The Three plate mold sets apart the runner structure, and also part within the cavity part, and demold everything within the mold base. This layout needs a trapezoidal runner model by way of sucker pins to break the entrances.

D3-07

The tiny cross-sectional entrance of the point gate turns into a trouble for resin fulfilled plastic. This kind gate might be a trouble with lower viscosity, lengthy fiber. The tiny gate constraint might increase the soften temperature and have an effect on heat sensitive plastic material. Neglecting these aspects could lead to excessive mold preservation.

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Benefits of the gating strategy drawn below are automated degating. Gating within the bottom up helps venting, and gating set into ribs, bosses, without display regions enhances cosmetics. The component is stripped from the gate in the event the ejector pins push the component and runner out . The tunnel gate/runner ought to curve enough to allow them to come out of its constrained area.
Plastic resin Filler
The tiny cross-sectional entrance of the sub gate turns into a trouble relating to resin fulfilled plastic material. This kind gate might be a trouble because of lower viscosity, lengthy fiber, or bead fulfilled plastic material. The tiny gate constraint might increase the soften temperature and have an effect on heat sensitive plastic material. Neglecting these aspects could lead to excessive mold preservation.

D3-12

Sub or tunnel entrances leave a really tiny gate mark on the component (diameter close to .020  to .060 ) which makes them extremely appealing. Moreover, the sub gate makes an opportunity to allow them to stay on a non-cosmetic areas. By layout, the mark is elimited clean, automatically.D3-13

The arrows on the sketching symbolize the plastic material movement from the sprue, runner, edge entrance, tab, and set into the component cavity. This strategy forbids jetting within the cavity or any other exterior flaws. A stronger component will be acquired from the improved movement pattern within the cavity and stress/strain is kept within the tab.
Plastic resin Filler
The tab gate possesses the same constraints as the side gate. Because an edge gate is situated before the tab, there might be difficulties for lower viscosity, lengthy fiber, or some bead fulfilled plastic material.

D3-14

Enlargement “A” illustrates a large mark remaining within the tab that has been eliminated. The mark might be eliminated by snipping or by putting the component inside a trim fixture. Because it is a fairly huge mark a good idea is to allow them to stay the tab on top of a non-cosmetic/non-functional region. Based on component design/function perhaps it’s feasible to allow the tab.

D3-15

The arrows on the sketching below symbolize the plastic material movement within the sprue, runner, fan entrance, and set into the component cavity. For huge or thick component sections the fan entrance gives a smooth changeover coming from a runner until the cavity. The fan entrance may also be used to spread the movement model on thin materials in order to assist reduce the chance of movement lines.
Plastic resin Filler
Just about any resin/filler works extremely well with this kind entrance due to the huge cross-sectional region entrance to the component. Additionally there is a smooth changeover of movement from the runner toward the cavity. There shouldn’t be any trouble to viscosity, or most fulfilled plastic material.

D3-16

Enlargement “A” illustrates a huge mark remaining within the fan entrance that has been eliminated. The entrance is best eliminated by employing a trim fixture, particularly on top of a thick section component. Because it is a fairly huge mark, a good idea is to allow them to place the entrance on a non-cosmetic/non-functional region, if feasible.

D3-17

The arrows on the sketching symbolize the plastic material movement within the sprue, runner, flash entrance, and set into the component cavity. A really thin, lengthy flash entrance is designed for thin dials, and huge flat sections, by way of an consistent straight edge. This kind entrance helps to allow them to distribute the plastic material  into the cavity with a wide model.
Plastic resin Filler
The entrance demonstrated {during|on} this cross-section is very lengthy and thin, allowing a wide choice of plastic material . Nonetheless, the thin, flash type entrance to the cavity may result in difficulties for lower viscosity and a lot filler type plastic material.

D3-18

Enlargement “A” illustrates a really thin, lengthy mark remaining from the flash entrance. This entrance possesses the advantage of leaving a really tiny aesthetic trace on the component, in addition to being conveniently eliminated manually. A cut fixture may just be employed when preferred.

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Gate design troubles:

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Categories
gate plastic mold company runner vent

Overview of Runners, Gates and Vents

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Runner and Gate Design

The article will discuss the fundamental kinds and operations of runners, gates(entrances) and air vents during injection molding. Additionally, you will obtain choice, utility, and customary difficulties connected with runners, entrances, and air vents.

D1-00

Injection Molding Cycle

This sketching describes a reciprocating screw of press. Polyester resin within the hopper goes into the extruder screw and turns into liquid for the shear of the spinning screw . The screw moves pushing the plasticized materials in a closed mold. The screw comes back and the course of action is recurrent.

D1-01

This sketching displays plastic injection mold base especially for its cross sectional  view . The nozzle of the press stayes in the sprue bushing. Plastic moves in a routine from the sprue to the component. Water channels cool down the plastic resin, the mold opens up, and the component and runner system are demolded.

D1-02

That photo demonstrates a whole runner structure of a plastic tea spoon, cutting knife, and fork mold. Demonstrated are the sprue, runners, entrances, and also molded components.

D1-03

sprue

The sprue can be described as path for the plastic material to move from the nozzle of the press to the runner in the mold. It can be rounded, tapered, and it has an undercut on the big end. This undercut retains and divides the sprue off of the nozzle as soon as the mold has opened up and the sprue and runner system demolded.D1-04

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runner

The runner is considered the path with regard to the plastic material to move through the sprue to the entrances of the mold cavities. This image illustrates the plastic moving via the sprue and runner.

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gate

The gate can be described as confined path used for the plastic material to move through the runner into the mold cavity. This image illustrates the plastic moving through the runner into the gate.

D1-06

The cavity location is in the model of the plastic component to be manufactured. The image the following illustrates the entire movement of the plastic material from the sprue bushing  to the mold cavity to generate the component.

D1-07

vent

Since the mold cavity is full of plastic material, air might be captured and has to be vented. This displacement is achieved through slots around the parting line or by way of ejection pins. In the event the air isn’t venting the compressed air will produce plenty heat which can burn the plastic material. The cartoon below illustrates ventilation of air from the cavity at a place across from the entrance

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Categories
plastic mold company

Glossary of Terms (3)

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SPRUE PULLER PIN Pin located directly under the opening of the sprue. Used to pull the molded sprue out of the bushing after a shot has been made.
SPRUE BUSHING RETAINER RING See LOCATING RING
STONING The process of refining all surfaces of the cavity or core with manufactured stones.
SUCKER PINS See SPRUE PULLER PIN
SUPPORT PLATE Mounted behind the core retainer plate to keep this plate from bending under the high pressure used in injection molding. (Also called BACK-UP PLATE)
SHOCK RESISTANCE The ability to resist the sudden application of an external force that results in the rapid build-up of stress.
SHORT SHOT Partial filling of a mold cavity or cavities.
SINK Small depressions on the molded surface caused by different cooling and shrinkage rates, typically between thick and thin sections.
SLIDE A portion of the mold that is designed to travel at an angle to the normal ejection movement of the mold base. Typically used to produce holes, recesses, or undercuts, by the use of a core attached to the slide mechanism. The slide pulls away before the molded part is ejected.
SPLAY Material flow marks, visible on the molded part. Caused by either contaminated or degraded material, or by material that is too cold and fills too slowly. 
SPRUE The round, tapered portion of the runner system that connects the machine injection nozzle with the runner system of the mold.
STOP PINS See SPACER BUTTONS
STRESS A force exerted upon a body that tends to put a strain on its shape. AII plastic parts have some degree of internal stress molded in. Too much internal stress is undesirable.
SUCKER PIN Typically a pin with a ball-shaped end. Plastic is molded around it, and it serves as an undercut and holds the plastic. The ejection system then forces the molded undercut off of the sucker pin.
TENSILE STRENGTH The resistance of a material to a force tending to stretch or extend the material.
THERMOPLASTIC RESIN A group of plastic materials that are capable of being molded when heated and hardened when cooled. A physical change takes place during the molding process, but a chemical change does not.
THERMOSETTING RESIN A group of plastic materials that are set by the application of heat and pressure. A chemical reaction takes place during molding, and the material cannot be restored to its original state after molding.
THREE PLATE MOLD A mold base with three separate parting lines, designed to automatically separate the runner system from the molded part.
TOOLS Special fixtures, molds, dies, or other devices that enable a manufacturer to produce parts.
TOOL STEELS Steels used to make cutting tools and dies. Many of these steels have considerable quantities of alloying elements such as chromium, carbon, tungsten, molybdenum, and other elements. They form hard carbides that provide good wearing qualities but at the same time decrease machinebility. Tool steels in the trade are classified for the most part by their applications, such as hot die, cold work die, high speed, shock resisting, mold, and special purpose steels. 

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TOP FRONT CLAMPING PLATE Holds the stationary part of the mold to the stationary platen of the injection machine.
TOUGHNESS The ability of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing.
TURBULENT An agitated flow of a liquid that is desired in a cooling circuit, because it removes more heat than one that is not agitated. The Reynolds Number is a measure of turbulent flow.
UNBALENCED RUNNER SYSTEM A runner system typically used for a family of parts. The Unbalanced Runner System has unequal diameters or length runners, and/or different size gates, and is used to achieve equal fill on molded cavities. This system is not a preferred method.
UNDERCUT A raised or recessed area of the mold cavity or core that impedes, or makes impossible, ejection of the molded part.
UNIT DIE SET A master mold base used in molds for injection moldings into which individual molds are inserted. These molds are filled by a centrally located sprue.
VENT A shallow groove or recess typically machined into the parting line of a mold. The vent allows trapped air or gases to escape the cavity as it is being filled with molding resin.
VISCOSITY The internal friction of a fluid to resist the tendency to flow.
WATERLINES See COOLING CHANNELS
WEAR RESISTANCE The capacity to withstand surface damage from contact with other metals, non-metallic particles or flowing liquids. Wear generally involves the progressive loss of surface material due to motion of that surface and a contacting surface or substance. 
WELD LINES A visible line appearing on a mold surface where two or more streams of material meet, then fuse together. 

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Categories
plastic mold company

Glossary of Terms (2)

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FLOW LINES See SPLAY
FREEZE TIME The time it takes to set the molded plastic resin for a variety of functions. For example, freeze time describes the time it takes to set the molded resin, in order for ejection to occur.
FRONT CAVITY PLATE See “A” PLATE
GATE An opening at the end of the runner through which the material enters the cavity.
GUIDE PINS See LEADER PINS
HARDENABILITY The ability of a material to become harder by the addition of alloying elements and heat treatment processes. It should not be confused with hardness.
HARDNESS The resistance of a metal to surface indentation (denting) or abrasion (scratching). Indentation hardness can be measured with the Rockwell or Brinell methods.
HEAT SINK A heat absorber or collector. It is used as a mold component or insert into the component to collect heat in an area that is hard to reach by typical cooling design. Materials typically used are copper, beryllium copper, tungsten alloys, and gas or liquid thermal pins.
HOT RUNNER MOLD A molding method in which the runner system is kept hot and insulated from the cavity portion of the mold. The mold parting line is typically at the gate. This runner system is not ejected to become waste or regrind material, as it is in the cold runner system.
INJECTION The process of forcing a plastic material or a molten alloy into a mold.
INJECTION MOLDING The process in which the plastic material is heated to a molten state in a heating cylinder, and then forced into a cooled mold to produce the desired shape.
INSERT Integral inserts – parts which are machined separately from the basic core and cavity, and are then installed in the proper position in the core and cavity, and which become part of the molded part after the molding material has hardened.
INSERTS, MOLDED-IN Loaded inserts – not part of the mold, but separate metal pieces placed in the mold which become part of the molded part after the molding material has hardened.
KNOCKOUT BAR See EJECTOR PLATE
KNOCKOUT PIN PLATE See EJECTOR RETAINER PLATE
KNOCKOUT PINS Term given to ejector pins.
LEADER PINS Hardened and ground steel pins pressed into one of the plates. They align the two halves of the mold base. (Also called GUIDE PINS)
LOCATING RING Fits into a counterbore in the top clamping plate and is used to locate the mold on the platen of the press so the nozzle and sprue bushing are aligned.
MACHINABILITY The relative ease of which a metal can be machined or worked on with tools.
MICROPROCESSOR A computer chip integrated circuit, capable of controlling the (Integrated Circuit) input and output functions, for which it was designed – such as automatically controlling the cooling cycle of a mold. 

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MIRROR FINISH A diamond finish that shines and reflects light.
MOLD The entire mechanism (cavities, cores, plungers, holder blocks, etc.) needed to mold parts from plastic materials or from non-ferrous alloys.
MULTIPLE CAVITY MOLD A mold which has a number of cavities and produces more than one part in each cycle.
ORANGE PEEL A condition caused by too much pressure, speed, or both when diamonding. When orange peel occurs the surface becomes bumpy and irregular.
O-RING A tire-shaped, round cross-section of a synthetic rubber gasket or seal. A coolant seal can be formed by a compression fit of the O-ring and itÆs mating parts.
PARALLELS Mounted on the bottom clamping plate under the support plate to form a space (ejector housing) which allows the ejection stroke when the piece parts are ejected. (Also called RAILS)
PARTING LINES Marks on a molding where halves of the mold meets in closing.
PIECE PART The article or part to be molded.
PILLARS Bars placed between the support plate and the bottom clamping plate. Bolted or doweled to the bottom clamping plate, they are used as additional support for the core retainer plate.
PLATENS The mounting plates of a press to which the mold assembly is bolted. 
PROFILER Profiler is a brand name commonly used to refer to any reciprocating hand piece.
PROTOTYPE MOLD A temporary or experimental mold construction made in order to obtain information on part design, tool design, and market reactions.
PUSH BACKS See RETURN PINS
RADIATE Emitting rays of heat, such as a mold-base radiating heat from the molding process.
RAILS See PARALLELS
REAMED HOLE A round, hard, multi-cutting edge scraping tool. It is used after a hole is drilled in order to improve the hole geometry. It will produce a rounder, straighter, and smoother hole than drilling.
REAR CAVITY PLATE See “B” PLATE
REAR CLAMPING PLATE See BOTTOM CLAMPING PLATE
REDUCE DEFORMATION Elements added to control the amount of change in a metal due to stress, thermal change, change in moisture or other changes.
RELEASE The ability of a mold to eject a part. 
RETURN PINS Located in the ejector retainer plate. These pins force the ejector plate and ejector retainer plate and, therefore the ejector pins, to the bottom position as the mold closes. (Also called EJECTOR RETURN PINS, SAFETY PINS, or PUSH BACKS)
REYNOLDS NUMBER A number used as a measure of turbulent flow for a liquid.
RUNNERS Channels through which plastics flow from the sprue to the gates of mold cavities.
RUST RESISTANCE The ability of a ferrous metal to resist oxidation in the presence of water (rust).
SAFETY PINS See RETURN PINS
SCAR An undesirable cosmetic mark left on the mold surface due to a variety of reasons, such as degating the part from the runner system.
SENSORS A variety of devices designed to detect, measure, or record physical phenomena such as temperature.
SHRINKAGE ALLOWANCE The additional dimensions that must be added to a mold to compensate for shrinkage of the plastic molding material on cooling.
SPACER BUTTONS Pressed into the bottom clamping plate, they are lands for the ejector plate. (Also called STOP PINS)
SPRUE BUSHING Butted up against the nozzle of the injection machine. Has a conical-shaped hole through which the material is forced into the mold runner. 

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Categories
Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

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ABRASION RESISTANCE The ability to resist localized surface damage from contact with other material in use, such as gouging, grinding, scratching or erosion.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) A privately funded, voluntary membership organization that identifies industrial and public needs for national consensus standards, and coordinates development of such standards. Many ANSI standards relate to the safe design and performance of equipment, such as safety shoes, eyeglasses, smoke detectors, fire pumps and household appliances; and safe practices or procedures, such as noise measurement, testing of fire extinguishers and flame arrestors, industrial lighting practices, and the use of abrasive wheels.
“A” PLATE Part of the stationary section of the mold into which the leader or guide pins are mounted. Also used to hold core, cavity blocks, and sprue bushing.
ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials) A voluntary membership organization with members from a broad spectrum of individuals, agencies, and industries concerned with materials. As the world’s largest source of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services, ASTM is a resource for sampling and testing methods, health and safety aspects of materials, safe performance guidelines, and effects of physical and biological agents and chemicals.
AUTOMATIC MOLD A mold designed and constructed in which the material is loaded into the mold and the finished parts are ejected from the mold without an operator.
BACK TAPER Sometimes called back draft or reverse draft.
BACK-UP PLATE See SUPPORT PLATE
BALANCED RUNNER SYSTEM A runner system that is designed to fill each mold cavity equally, continuously, and simultaneously.
BALL END MILL A hardened cutter, capable of machining a half-round slot, or shape into annealed metal using the milling machine.
BENCHING Term used to define the initial steps in polishing to prepare cavity and core blocks for the actual polishing process. 
BERYLLIUM COPPER Beryllium is added to copper to form a hard, strong alloy. It is excellent as a heat sink, or heat absorber, for a component portion of the mold that is hard to reach by typical cooling design. It can also be used to conduct heat.
BOTTOM CLAMPING PLATE Holds the moving portion of the mold to the movable platen of the injection machine.
“B” PLATE Top plate of the movable section of the mold. Forms the parting line of the mold with “A” plate. Used to hold the leader pin bushings as well as core and cavity blocks.
BUSHINGS Hardened and ground steel bushings which are pressed into one of the plates. They serve as bearing surfaces for the leader pins.
CAVITY The depression or female portion of the mold which gives the external surface to the part being produced.
CHILLER See COOLING UNIT
CHILLING UNIT A mechanical refrigerator designed for outgoing water of a specific temperature. Ethylene glycol can be added to the water if a temperature below freezing is required.
COLD SLUG WELL A recess or groove, at the end of a long length that traps the leading cooled plastic. A Cold Slug Well is typically machined in a runner part of a balanced runner system, and can be used to prevent or minimize weld lines.
CONDUCTION Transferring heat from two or more bodies that are in contact with each other, such as heat conducted by mold-base steels.
CONVECTION The ability of a medium to carry heat from one place to another, such as coolant traveling through mold steel channels

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COOLING CHANNELS Holes drilled into the various plates or into the various mold components, or channels machined into components, to allow the flow of a cooling medium (water) in order to keep the mold at the proper molding temperature.
COOLING TOWER Heated coolant from a mold is pumped to a cooling tower, inside or outside of the factory, where it falls by gravity past a grid. Some cooling takes place during the fall, but fans are typically used to add extra cooling. The cooled liquid is then collected and returned to pass through the mold again.
COOLING UNIT A mechanical refrigerator designed for outgoing water of a specific temperature. Ethylene glycol could be added to the water if temperatures below freezing were required.
COOLING UNIT A system of cooling channels and components designed to give effective cooling to a molded part or parts.
CORE The male portion of a mold that shapes the interior of a hollow molded part.
CORE PIN A pin for forming a hole or opening in a plastic molded piece.
CUSTOM MOLDS Molds owned by the customer and used by the molder.
CYCLE TIME The total time required to produce a molded part. Cycle time includes the time from the injection of the plastic resin into the mold, to the ejection of the molded part.
DEGATING Separation of the gate and runner system from the molded part. Degating can be done by hand, in a trim fixture, or automatically.
DEOXIDIZERS Elements added during the manufacture of steel to control the residual amount of oxygen that remains in the steel.
DIAMONDING Act of shining molding surfaces with diamond compound and brushes and buffs.
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY The ability of a plastic part to keep the precise shape in which it was molded.
EJECTOR PIN A pin (in a mold) that directly pushes the molded part out of the cavity. Sometimes called a knockout pin. A number of these pins may be used in one mold.
EJECTOR PLATE Bolted together with the ejector retainer plate to form a unit. Contains the plate for the pins in the ejector retainer plate.
EJECTOR RETAINER PLATE Counterbored for the heads of ejector, ejector return pins, and sprue puller pins.
EJECTOR RETURN PINS See RETURN PINS
ETHYLENE GLYCOL A colorless, viscous liquid used as antifreeze.
FATIGUE RESISTANCE The ability of a metal to resist fracture from repeated application of stresses. Fatigue failure usually occurs at loads which if applied statically would have little effect, but repeated cycles of the stress or strain lead to eventual failure.
FATIGUE STRENGTH The highest cyclic stress a material can withstand for a given number of cycles before failure occurs.
FLASH A thin piece of plastic material that typically forms along the parting line of a molded part. Flash is a result of a parting line surface or surfaces that is not matched or is shutting off the flow of plastic resin

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